Page 3 - GUT Summit
P. 3

Dr Fernando Azpiroz, Chief of Department of Digestive Diseases and Professor of Medicine, Hospital General Vall d’Hebron, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Spain opened the summit and introduced the first of the speakers,
Daniel McDonald, Boulder, USA who presented on The American gut project - a crowd funded project whose aim is to collect faecal samples to analyse and compare gut microbes across age and geographical origin. McDonald stated that infant gut microbes look the same regardless of where the infant is born, the microbes then change and differ as people age, such changes can be associated with the onset of weaning [Koenig, 2011]. It has been shown that the microbes of healthy infants differ remarkably to those in Intensive Care Units (ICU). This has been attributed to antibiotics amplifying the dysbiosis associated with Crohn’s disease, as the beneficial gut organisms become repressed [Gevers, 2015].
Dr Jöel Doré, INRA, Paris, France presented on the Clinical relevance of enterotypes, and stated that dominant microbiota evolves significantly in the early years of life, between one and three years [Gonzalez, 2011]. Human microbiomes differ by bacterial gene counts and a low gene count (low bacterial richness) is associated with less healthy metabolic and inflammatory traits; is a predictor
of relapse rates in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); aggravation
in chronic conditions; and a non-response to a calorie-restricted diet in obesity [Cotillard, 2013; Le Chatelier, 2013].
It has been shown that ‘healthier’ dietary habits are associated with higher gene diversity [Kong, 2014]. Recent research demonstrates that metabolic syndrome associated dysbiosis may be at least temporarily corrected by microbiota transplantation together with mitigation of insulin resistance [Vrieze, 2012].
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Daniel McDonald
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The assembly of an infant gut microbiome compared to a healthy adult

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