Page 4 - GUT Summit
P. 4

When does the adult gut microbiome become established?
0.80 0.75 0.70 0.65 0.60 0.55 0.50 0.45 0.40
Adapted from: Yatsunenko, 2012
Malawians
Amerindians
USA
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Age, years
Later in the day Professor Martin Blaser, Director of the Human Microbiome Program, NYU (above) presented on the ‘Use of antibiotics as a risk factor of disease’.
Blaser reiterated the point that the adult gut microbiome becomes established at about the age of 3 years [Yatsunenko, 2012] and went on to explain that mothers do not share the bacteria with their babies in the same way that they used to, and this inhibits the development of a healthy gut microbiome during the vital stage of development in the early years [Cho, 2013].
A study looking at the microbiota of healthy adults
from the Amazonas of Venezuela, rural Malawi and US metropolitan areas, found the degree of diversity is much lower in Americans compared to the other 2 groups [Yatsunenko, 2012].
Mother Child Transmission (Modern)
Dental amalgum
Bottle feeding
Effect of maternal exposures
Environment • Antisepsis • Antibiotics • Diet
Other hosts Epigenetics
Adapted from: Cho, 2013
Oral
(pre-mastication of food)
Mammary, through breastfeeding (selection)
Cutaneous (contact with skin)
Vaginal (passage through birth canal)
Early-life antibiotics
Early/extensive bathing
Caecarean section
UnFrac distance between children and adults


































































































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